Iterator of the Week

This is on going series of articles showcasing different uses for STL style iterators in C++. All source code presented here is copyright 1998-2002 James M. Curran, but may be used freely.  All comment and suggestion are welcome.

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#1 - A CView Iterator.
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// ViewIter -- An STL-style iterator over the CViews of
// a particular CDocument.
//
// Usage example:
//  void SomeFunc(CView* vv);
//
//	CDocument* dd = GetDocument();
//	std::for_each(ViewIter(dd), ViewIter(), SomeFunc);
//
//
// Copyright 2002, James M. Curran   jamescurran@mvps.org
//
// May be used freely.
//
// Comments, suggestions, modifications, improvements welcome....
//

class ViewIter : public std::iterator<std::forward_iterator_tag, CView*>

 First thing to note, is that while it functions somewhat like a  pointer, a ViewIter is an object, so be careful not to declare it as  ViewIter* iter; also, you'd have to say iter.memfunc() instead of iter->memfunc() -- except that ViewIter has no member functions (except operators) to call.

 The next important detail is the iterator<> base class. forward_iterator_tag says what kind of iterator this is (basically it can only move forward in the list of CViews), and CView* is the  datatype of the thing that *iter will return. iterator<> defines a  number of typedefs which are used by the standard algorithms. We could  define these ourselves, but it's best to let the standard library work for us. 

{
private:
	POSITION	m_pos;
	CDocument*	m_src;
	CView* m_curr;

Like many collections in MFC, enumerating CView is done via a POSITION object, so our iterator will need one of them. Since we will be calling member functions of CDocument, we'll have to keep a pointer to one of them around. And, though it may not be obvious right now, we'll also  need to store a CView pointer. We'll get to why in a minute.

public:
  ViewIter(): m_src(NULL), m_pos(NULL), m_curr(NULL)
	{ }

Next up, the constructors. We'll start with the simpler one, the  default ctor. No parameters and everything set to NULL. This pretty  much makes it a "dead object" as we aren't going to define a way to initialize a ViewIter object after it's constructed. So, what's it good for? Well, for a standard container we'd have begin() and end() member functions to provide that range iterators. CDocument doesn't provide  them, so we have to make do. The beginning iterator is given by  ViewIter(pDoc); by convention in these cases, a default constructed iter --ViewIter() -- creates a "passed-the-end" iterator.

	ViewIter(CDocument* src): m_src(src), m_pos(src->GetFirstViewPosition())
	{
		operator++();
	}

For the important ctor, we just store the CDoument pointer, then initialize the POSITION object by calling GetFirstViewPosition(). Note, however, that that function doesn't actually get the first position; it must be followed by a call to GetNextView(), but that's what we do in oper++, so we'll just call that.

	ViewIter& operator++()
	{
  		m_curr = m_src->GetNextView(m_pos);
		return *this;
	}
oper++ is the heart of the class. Now, here it's important to note the difference between the way MFC handles iterating through collections, and the way STL does. Basically, in STL, getting the current and moving to the next are two distinct operations, while under MFC, they are just one. This complicates simulating an STL interface, since we'll have to separate them. This is why we needed to store a copy of the current CView -- so we'll have it available later when we call oper*

Another note things to note, is that this implements the prefix oper++ (++iter), and nowhere do we define the postfix operator (iter++). Technically, to be a true forward iterator, we should define the postfix operator, but it is rarely if ever used in the standard algorithms. More importantly, it is expected to return a copy of the iterator in the not-yet-incremented state, and I didn't want to be bother thinking about if that would work. Just eliminating the postincrement made life much easier.

CView* operator*()
	{	return m_curr;		}

And thus, oper*. Note, coded this way, they maintain the correct behavior of the STL operators: two oper++s in a row never return the first object; two oper*s in a row return the same object each time.

	bool operator==(const ViewIter& rhs)
	{	return m_pos == rhs.m_pos;	}

If two POSITION object have the same value, it's a good bet they are iterating the same path. More importantly, if a POSITION object equal NULL, it's reached the end of it's range, which is what we are really checking for when we compare iterators 99.99% of the time. So, if the m_pos member of a ViewIter object pretending to be the "past-the-end" indicator equals NULL, than oper== will return true, when it is compared to a "live" ViewIter which has reached the end. And, sure enough, that's what we set m_pos to in the default ctor!

	bool operator!=(const ViewIter& rhs)
	{	return !operator==(rhs);	}

OK, actually, people really don't care when iterators are equal -- they care when they are not equal...

};

You can download the full source code from here.ViewIter.h (3KB)


Copyright © 2000 James M. Curran.
All rights reserved.
Revised: 14-Apr-2014.